May 24, 2017
I love programming, and have made a nice career of it at Google, Microsoft, and startups. But when I got old enough to contemplate what I want to do with the rest of my time on earth, I came to this realization:
But we create computers that program humans instead.
To push against this trend, I turned away from work on the social algorithm of search, and instead began creating tools and lessons to make programming accessible to children.
While child-oriented programming may seem a juvenile escape from the rigors of a competitive business, I think making programming more easily learnable is one of the most important problems facing society today. To avoid feeding a decline of the human condition where people become replaceable by computers, we must make our technology more comprehensible and programmable. Our industry needs to turn its focus away from algorithms that manipulate human behavior, and towards tools that amplify imagination. This means not only changing our technology, but changing the way people know how to use it.
My easy-programming project was called Pencil Code. It was a short book that became a website, and it got going while I was sitting near Professor Hal Abelson at his desk at Google Boston, where he coordinated a similar project, App Inventor. Hal is the author of one of the seminal textbooks in computer science which set the tone for a generation of practitioners, and he continues to lead the charge on issues such as privacy and security and ethics in our field.
Over many discussions with Hal, I came to realize that changing society cannot be done only by making widgets: changing society means articulating the ideas that frame everybody's thinking.
Eventually, determined to make a difference, I retired from Google. I packed up my desk and walked across the street to MIT to pursue a PhD and begin a new career as an idea-maker - a researcher.
A First Semester Realization
At MIT, professor Rob Miller also works on creating programming tools that make programming easier to learn, and he took me under his wing as I set out on that path. My first year would not be spent doing much research - my one academic contribution was to write a review paper surveying the field. Instead my first year as a new student was spent on the array of TQE classes they require for you to broaden your view of the field.
So I sharpened my pencil and re-learned the skill of writing homework and exams. I took classes in security and vision to update my knowledge, but I was left by a feeling that the problem of opaque computing was fundamental to these fields also. Programmers seem intractably blind to security holes; and the remarkable power of deep neural networks seems inextricably linked to their incomprehensibility by humans. I am old enough to see how the field has changed: these problems did not exist when I began in computer science. My conclusion was horrifying.
MIT is a remarkable cauldron for incubating such ideas and putting them to action, so my story will continue next time I have time to write.
May 23, 2017
Government is Not the Problem
Dear Senator Warren,
I write to you because I believe your leadership may help steer this country out of our current national crisis. As impeachment becomes increasingly inevitable, we need our leaders to avoid feeding the disastrous antigovernment philosophy that grew out of the Nixon impeachment.
We need you to need to keep pounding away at the message:
The destruction of government by the Republican party is the problem.
Since the Reagan revolution, the Republican party has worshipped the perverse idea that "government is always the problem," which is an oversimplification and corruption of Reagan's vision that government by the elite is dangerous. Advocating the destruction of government is a politically potent message since nobody likes paying tolls, taxes, or fines. But the message is a cynical repackaging of anarchy that benefits only the rich and powerful, and it is the exact opposite of Reagan's vision. The Trump administration is proof positive that trying to "deconstruct the administrative state" is a disaster for everybody but the most crooked and greedy of the elite. Our country is being sacked.
Please - Senator Warren - ideas are important, and we depend on articulate leaders like you to help shape the discourse of our nation.
Sincerely, your constituent and supporter,
May 22, 2017
Interestingly for me, grandpa's travel to the U.S. was during the years of the discriminatory Oriental Exclusion Acts that limited immigration from China to to the U.S. to zero people per year, so I do not know how he entered the United States in 1941.
He was a student from an elite family and not one of the Chinese laborers that congress feared, so maybe he entered under a legal loophole. I wonder, suddenly, if that is why my Anglicized last name has a Germanic spelling, and why my grandfather and grandmother never spoke in Chinese in public, even to each other. Did grandpa enter under a German identity? Did he avoid speaking Chinese to avoid the attention of racist immigration officers? I think entry was probably very tricky, and very few Chinese-American families have the same immigration story and timeline as mine. Entry from China was virtually nil from 1924 to 1943.
Incidentally, when people say Asians are a "model minority" and ask "why are Chinese people so smart?" I think the reason is that for many decades even before and after this period, there were draconian and racist exclusion laws that meant that you needed to be a sophisticated member of the elite, with money and access to lawyers, to navigate the loopholes and enter the United States. This continues to be true today.
Thus Chinese and other Asian immigrants have long been children of the rich, educated elite. No surprise that when they come to the United States, they join the ranks of the rich, educated elite.
May 21, 2017
David H Bau
I am named after my grandfather, who was the scion of a wealthy Shanghai family and an enterprising young banker in Shanghai and Hong Kong in the 1930's. But in 1941, the intellectually ambitious and multilingual young man grew restless and decided to to embark on a big "Act 2" for his life, leaving the comfort of a privileged life in China to travel to the U.S. to train himself as an international economist.
Act 2: A Mixed-Up Move to America
So, in the summer of 1941 at the age of 28, grandpa made the rare trek from Shanghai to the University of Maryland, together with his pregnant young wife Fanny and his baby daughter Deanna.
I do not know if David H. Bau, Sr. flew to the U.S. on the China Clipper into San Francisco or took a steamer like the Nippon Maru into Los Angeles, but there was certainly no convenient way of physically getting from Shanghai to College Park in 1941. While traveling halfway around the world and traversing the continental United States that summer, my grandmother went into labor. So they stopped in the middle of their trip and delayed their arrival at UMD for a few months to take care of the new baby. My father Paul was the first American-born kid in our family, and it is a fitting designation. Born in Chicago, my dad is really American through and through; he's all about football, poker, stamp collecting, and hamburgers, and he's a dyed-in-the-wool Republican.
Act 3: The American War Effort
But what should happen on December 7 of 1941 as David and Fanny were taking care of little baby Paul? When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and America entered the war on the Pacific front, it brought an instant halt to normal commerce with China, and my grandfather found himself cut off from the funds from his family that would have supported his leisurely life and his graduate studies. He suddenly needed a job to pay the rent for his house in D.C.
So the young graduate student applied for a job at the U.S. war department, where his multilingual skills and knowledge of Asian banking and agricultural economics would come in handy in the fight with Japan. He was a thinker, not a fighter, and so naturally he was recruited as intelligence officer in the OSS, what they used to call the CIA. We don't know much about his job as a spy, but it probably involved the deskwork that would have been needed to wage economic warfare against Japan. To implement an effective blockade, you need to know which types of trade to interrupt and how. You need an Asian economist to study the problem. Due to the exclusion act, my grandfather might have been the only one in the country.
The war years witnessed global turmoil, including the communist revolution in China, during which the family's fortune in China was decimated. There are various old arguments in my extended family of which I am only vaguely aware, but I believe they go back to the stress and strain of dividing up scraps of remaining family wealth from those turbulent years.
My grandfather would recount the non-secret part of his job at the end of the war, which was exactly the opposite of the blockade he might have created during the war. General MacArthur recruited him into the army, and sent him into Japan to lead the agricultural reconstruction of that broken country. My grandfather was responsible for re-feeding Japan and getting its population back on its feet; he says that this was the most rewarding work of his life.
Act 3: International Economist
After the war, I do not know if he completed his graduate studies, but he did achieve his dream of becoming an international agricultural economist, working for the U.N. My father tells stories of a big family trip to Thailand where they lived in an old palace so large that they used to bicycle down the hallways. That must have been 1951: I can see on Google Books a U.N. report grandpa wrote that year called Agricultural Economic Survey of Sarapee District, Chiengmai Province, Thailand.
But then he turned down a senior post with the newly-formalized Food and Agricultural Organization, because he loved Washington D.C. and did not want to move the family to Rome. So my father and my aunt and uncle grew up as Washington D.C. kids. Their family house was just a few steps from the Capitol. To stay in D.C., my grandfather embarked on a new career as an American businessman.
Act 4: American Businessman
Due to the overt racism of the day, there were only a few realistic career avenues open for a midcentury Chinese-American businessman, and one of them was to open a Chinese restaurant. Apparently grandpa opened up two, one in Georgetown and a second one in the comfortable tropical climes of Puerto Rico where my dad graduated from high school (he still loves the island and has many friends there). My grandfather also used to recount stories of trying to become a farmer, unsuccessfully, with the new-wave crop of soybeans, on land in Puerto Rico. He failed at business several times before deciding that business was not for him. Then he moved on to his "Act 5", finding another way to live in his beloved city Washington D.C.
Act 5: Librarian of Congress
He went back to school, spending some time in Ann Arbor to get a degree in Library Science (I can find his graduate research funding support in 1962 and his graudation with a masters from University of Michigan a couple years later). With this training, he became one of the top Asian literature librarians in the country, taking a job around the corner from his D.C. house at the Library of Congress.
I found this 1995 obituary of my grandfather in the Washington Post. It summarized the story of his life after the war years.
DAVID H. BAU Library of Congress Librarian
The elderly senior librarian is the grandpa I remember, and he seemed so very happy in his Act 5. He brought me to his office at the LoC and showed me the shelf where he always had 10 asian-language books that he was speed-reading simultaneously to catalog them. He told me that being a librarian was supposed to be his retirement job, but it was a job that he did longer than any other in his life. He was always full of jokes and energy, and he always had some sort of crazy project going on such as renovating his own bathrooms, or processing his own raw soybeans into other food products in his kitchen.
He died shortly after I was able to introduce him to Heidi, who I married not long after his death in 1995.
Grandpa's many adventures have given me the confidence to try to reinvent myself in my own life. His life was an inspiration, and I still miss him.
May 10, 2017
Dear Senator Collins
You are putting our democracy in danger. Your recent declarations about Trump's firing of Comey are unworthy of a democratically elected Senator, and you have lost my confidence to sit on the Senate intelligence committee and faithfully investigate matters related to Russian collaboration.
With yesterday's firing of the head of the FBI, our president is taking the actions of a corrupt dictatorship. By firing Comey after removing both Sally Yates and Preet Bhara, Trump has now eliminated the third senior official charged with examining corruption in the executive branch. It is clear that he will continue to fire investigators who dare to follow the facts where they lead, as soon as they lead too close to him.
How can you look the American people in the eye and say "Any suggestion that today’s announcement is somehow an effort to stop the FBI's investigation of Russia’s attempt to influence the election last fall is misplaced?"
Trump's continued massacre of our law-enforcement branch is as plain to see as it is when Egyptian leaders recently sacked their anticorruption officials, or when the Chinese communist leadership has imprisoned righteous lawyers. The charges are trumped up.
Previously to today I was a supporter. I believed you to be a smart, honest upstanding New England senator. But your shocking defense of President Trump's dictatorial actions has made it clear that you are either a cynical opportunist or thoroughly corrupt yourself. No patriotic American could love our constitution and also defend Trump's destruction of the Justice department and the FBI.
Consider yourself on this voter's "evil politician" list as of today.
May 09, 2017
Trump is a Two-Bit Dictator
Trump fired the head of the FBI today.
Eliminating anticorruption officials is the move of a middle-eastern dictatorship. We can no longer see Trump as a bumbling buffoon. He is our Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
Next time you hear a political slogan about Freedom and Liberty: Just remember that the Republican party chose Trump over 16 other candidates. This is the true face of what the Republican party stands for.
April 25, 2017
One of the principal challenges facing humanity is transparency: how to maintain human comprehension and control as we build ever more complex systems and societies.
Doing a PhD at MIT has allowed me to pour my efforts into one corner of this problem that I think is important: cracking open the black box of deep neural networks. Deep neural networks are self-programming systems that use numerical methods to create layered models that are incomprehensibly complex. And yet despite our ignorance of how deep nets work, we engineers have been busy stitching these opaque systems into our everyday lives.
I have just posted my first paper done in this area at MIT. I am proud of the work. It was done together with Bolei Zhou and Aditya Khosla and our advisers Aude Oliva and Antonio Torralba. Motivated by the notion that the first step towards improving something is to measure it, we lay out a way to quantify human interpretability of deep networks. We show how interpretability varies over a range of different types of neural networks.
We also use our measurement to discover a fact that contradicts prevailing wisdom. We find that interpretability is not isotropic in representation space. That means that neural networks align their representations with individual variables which are much more interpretable than random linear combinations of those variables. This behavior is a hint that networks may be decomposing problems along human-understandable lines. Networks may be rediscovering human common sense.
It is just a first step. But it is a step of a longer research program I want to pursue.
I just finished reviewing the galleys for a review paper about learnable programming that I wrote with Lyn Turbak, Caitlin Kelleher, Jeff Gray, and Josh Sheldon, while being advised by Rob Miller.
It is called "Blocks and Beyond" and it surveys the innovation happening around blocks-based programming interfaces designed to be accessible to novice programmers. Much of the ongoing work in learnable programming can be seen in terms of modern HCI principles. Programming is the original human-computer interaction, but it is also one of the most complex. When seen as an HCI problem, programming is far from solved.
Research in blocks languages shows that blocks are not "just for kids." Applying blocks-based instruction in college education have resulted in significant academic gains, and there are reasons to believe that this is because blocks aid in recall, reduce cognitive load, and make programming less error-prone. Blocks allow students to focus on concepts rather than syntax. These are benefits that could benefit many users of all ages, especially those who are learning something new.
This work is very important because it addresses a fundamental problem in society. While our computers were originally designed to be programmed by people, in the last 20 years, much more effort has been put into creating computer algorithms that program people instead. To put humanity back in control, we need to make systems more transparent and programmable. And we need programming to be more broadly accessible and more broadly understood.
Look for the article in the June issue of CACM.
April 11, 2017
Beware the Index Fund
As Toshiba seems poised for a fall, it seems like it is time to pay attention to size. A nice article in Bloomerg today highlights a systemic risk in worldwide megacorporations. For years, management, investment bankers, and investors have benefitted from encouraging an M&A boom. I like to play the game Acquire with my kids, and so they can tell you that management loves acquisition because of all the bonuses. Bankers love mergers because they generate lucrative fees. And investors will pay a premium for merged companies because they have less overhead, better access to capital, and better pricing power.
But giant companies are horrible places to work: when there are five layers of management separating the work-doers from the deciders, everybody starts triple-guessing their boss's boss's double-guessing. Having the best of intentions, employees spend their efforts making plans for the pre-meeting before the planning meeting about the big meeting, and everybody's IQ is wasted on palace intrigue.
Asia has this problem in a special way. It has been popular for Asian governments to encourage megacorporations as instruments of state policy, and this has resulted in the phenomenon of the giant zombie companies in Asia.
And this brings us to the biggest financial risk in the world today: the massive slow-moving failure of China's state-owned enterprises. These companies make up 30% of the the world's largest economy and include all the country's biggest oil, electricity, construction, telecom, automotive, and shipbuilding companies. The government is afraid to let them fail, so they are insulated from ordinary market pressures, and historically rife with corruption.
Chinese SOEs are notoriously inefficient, and the problem has been getting worse. When global trade stalled in the wake of the 2008 global financial collapse, China picked up much of the slack by artificially pumping up production and buy building up massive amounts of debt in SOEs: estimates are that 90% of China's GDP growth post-2008 comes from these SOEs. Unfortunately, smart industrial policy is dumb business: nobody's buying what SOEs are making.
It is easy to point at China and see how bad their megacorporations are. But coming back to the U.S., it seems to me that it's time to scrutinize our own assumptions about size. When you buy an index fund, you are trusting companies in proportion to their size: the S&P 500 index is mostly 50 megacorporations, including several "beauties" such as Comcast, Exxon, and Verizon that resemble SOEs in the way they make money by manipulating government regulations. What happens to our index funds when the zombies fall, political and financial fashions change, and it is no longer desirable to be large?
Beware the market-cap-weighted index fund.
March 25, 2017
Does Watching Fox News Kill You?
A note to forward to your uncle when you urge him to cut it out with the Fox News habit: watching Fox News might kill you.
Here's the evidence. Starting around 2000, Fox News began dominating cable news viewership with a sensationalist formula that targeted non-college-educated middle-class non-latino white viewers. Today, the NYT points out that even as conservative Republicans dominate political power in the U.S., Fox retains its uniquely apocalyptic tone, depicting the world as a relentlessly dark and dangerous place. Nobody delivers negative news more consistently than Fox.
The other meme circulating today is the remarkable finding that, since 2000, there has been a unprecedented rise in death among non-college-educated middle-class non-latino whites, driven by an explosion of suicides, alcoholism, and drug addiction. Researchers are puzzled why this phenomenon seems to affect this narrow community only.
What happened? The dominant theory is that this community has faced a sudden collapse in employment opportunities. But globalization and automation are equal-opportunity employment threats that affect blacks and latinos even more severely than whites. Job losses also do not explain why the phenomenon would begin at the height of the internet boom years with low unemployment across the economy. Why are suicides narrowly rising among this white population, and why suddenly starting in 1998? Did this group face some new specific public health danger that started at that time?
Of course they did. It is well-known that hours of TV watching is linked to depression. But more specifically, a study by Johnston and Davey found a direct link between negative-news-watching and mental health: consuming negative news stories makes you exaggerate the importance of your own personal problems, including problems completely unrelated to the news. This cognitive distortion, called catastrophizing, is linked to anxiety, depression, and - especially in those who suffer chronic pain - suicidal thoughts.
So here's the theory. Watching too much negative news when you are suffering pain can make you oversensitive to your pain (and maybe over-consume pain medication), and it can also make you suicidal. Black and Latino and college-educated populations (and whites before the launch of Fox in 1996) are inoculated from this mental health problem because they simply do not watch Fox. Unemployment alone does not explain the death rate, because it is not getting hurt and losing your job, but after that, sitting at home consuming a regular diet of Fox News, that leads you to catastrophize your personal pain. It is the combination of bad circumstances and bad news that drives you to despair, alcoholism, opioids, and suicide.
So when you get sick and are stuck at home, out of work, you should turn on Netflix and watch a fun movie to cheer yourself a bit. And knock it off with the Fox - that stuff can kill you.
Graph at the top: USW is mortality rates of non-college-educated non-latino whites in the U.S. Graph at the bottom: comparative viewership of Fox News versus other cable news outlets.
January 30, 2017
Our National Identity
Some Democratic operatives are delighted about the crowds flocking to airports and are imagining ever-bigger crowds as a list of favorite liberal policies are threatened by Trump.
If you put other issues on the same level as immigration, you are blind to the real battle being fought. The Democratic leadership does not seem to understand that the issue of immigration is special, because the battle is fundamentally one about national identity.
We are a nation of immigrants.
Trump is all about attacking this identity: his orders say that this nation belongs only to the whitefolk who list their ancestry on Census forms as "American." Identity is special. People will suffer tariffs, corruption, crumbling schools, pollution, and sickness without a fight; but people are enraged when you attack who they are.
Outrage is Not Enough
Dear Senator Warren,
My wife and I are your constituents: we are technology and healthcare professionals who are ethnically Chinese and whose families immigrated to the U.S. in the 20th century. Our families came to the United States because of its democratic values, because of its constitutional protections against oppression, and because of its culture of inclusiveness and opportunity for all. We have enjoyed the education here, and we have built a productive, happy life, improving the health of our neighbors and creating inventions for the world.
In recent days, we have been alarmed at the speed at which constitutional protections for our minority neighbors have been stripped without reason. Officers of the Department of Homeland Security have not only carried out Trump's unconstitutional travel orders, but they have ignored court orders staying airport detentions. We are strong supporters of legal defenses and are contributing to their efforts, but the legal system, we fear, provides little protection when the law-enforcement branch of the government does not respect the rule of law. Law, in the end, is a form of customary behavior, and history has shown how easily the basic customs of society can be cast aside when those who wield power simply ignore the law. We must recognize it as a grave crisis of government.
Under the new American system being built by Trump, we can see that legal protections for minorities will be stripped, and that minorities will face economic, institutionalized, and cultural discrimination. We can see that our immigrant friends and neighbors will be imprisoned, interrogated, and deported. We see our government engaging in the kind of oppressive treatment that our parents and grandparents fled when coming to America.
There have been many reports of various people expressing “grave concern” and even “outrage.” Expressing outrage is not enough: we must stop this before opposition becomes impossible. We implore you to help find a way to organize and harness these concerns into an effective response that goes beyond outrage. We do not want our daily efforts, our tax dollars, and our standing as Americans going to support violations of the constitution. What else can we do to stop this catastrophe?
David Bau and Heidi Yeh
December 07, 2016
A Warning From 1937
During these days of rising Trumpism, it is instructive to go back to 1937 and ask an ordinary German citizen why they joined the National Socialism party. We can do this because Milton Mayer did. Here is an answer from Heinrich Hildebrandt, a schoolteacher who recalled his experience when joining the Party in 1937, given in an interview shortly after World War II. His words cut to a deep, difficult truth: the Nazi party drew its strength from the power of social acceptance.
In 2016 we are a lifetime away, but people are the same, and I think this is a core appeal of Trumpism today. Trump is the blue-collar white-trash billionaire who brings together a group of common people and sees them, really sees them, as peers. His racism, shoot-from-the-hip thinking, crude language. conspiracy theories and lack of intellectual rigor - these are all forms of commonfolk thinking, and Trump accepts them, adopts them, and meets them as equal to him - really equal.
It is also a mirror image of the political failure of the current Democratic party. We Obama/Clinton Democrats are a mix of Harvard policy wonkishness, MIT scientific rigor and Wellesley political correctness. While the Democratic party wants to think that it works in the best interests of the common man, it does so with sterile academic arguments that are incomprehensible to and uncomprehending of regular folks. Democratic policies are for your own good because experts say they are. The delivery is paternalistic instead of a meeting of equals.
People are ordinary, not elite. And there is huge power in the feeling of acceptance, membership, and treatment as true equals that Trump's approach can bring. Of course that does not mean that it is ultimately good for the world.
This is the warning from 1937 that we should all heed.
November 18, 2016
The media has started to use the word 'nativist' to represent a common point of view within the Trump administration. I do not think this word is appropriate. I makes it sound like the incoming administration is very pro-native-American, which conjures images of expanding rights for the Cherokee nation.
The word is not accurate. The media is just too afraid to call it what it is.
The correct word is 'racist'.
November 09, 2016
A Demon-Haunted World
America, welcome to the Demon-Haunted world: we have arrived at the moment Carl Sagan foretold 20 years ago.
I have a foreboding of an America in my children's or grandchildren's time — when the United States is a service and information economy; when nearly all the manufacturing industries have slipped away to other countries; when awesome technological powers are in the hands of a very few, and no one representing the public interest can even grasp the issues; when the people have lost the ability to set their own agendas or knowledgeably question those in authority; when, clutching our crystals and nervously consulting our horoscopes, our critical faculties in decline, unable to distinguish between what feels good and what's true, we slide, almost without noticing, back into superstition and darkness.
A Demon-Haunted World was written in 1997. Time to take notice.
October 20, 2016
By the People, For the People
Our presidential debates have turned into a reality-TV shouting match, which should not be surprising given the background of the Republican candidate. Here is an antidote to the vitriol, and a reminder of what self-governance is all about. Please volunteer, organize, contribute, and vote.
October 08, 2016
Integrity in Government
More than half of GOP insiders believe the Trump campaign can weather his misogyny and racism, which speaks volumes about the vision that Republicans have for government. For them, the racist vote is a path to power, principles be damned. And it clarifies how the GOP is destroying our democracy. Moderate Republicans such as Kelly Ayotte have started to disavow Trump, but the fact remains: a 2016 vote for any Republican is unconscionable. A vote for a Republican of any stripe feeds the destructive cynicism that created Trump.
In contrast, efforts by Russian spies to leak the most damaging emails from the Clinton offices actually reveal how squeaky-clean the Democrats are. At Goldman Sachs she was critical of banks behavior leading up to 2008; she supports free trade if it benefits labor and environment. And her emails reveal her close consultation with Elizabeth Warren on economic policy. Clinton in private is even better than I had assumed: she is a tireless coalition-builder who talks to both bankers and progressives and keeps her eye on the ball. Let's give her a Congress that isn't poisoned with cynicism.
Please join me in donating to as many Democratic congressional candidates as you can afford. This year I am donating more money than I have ever donated before, and I hope you join me. Senate candidates like the wonderful Governor Maggie Hassan need support, but even more, the highest impact can be had by donating to smaller Congressional races. House races can be surprisingly small-money affairs, and even just a few well-placed donations could help flip a seat.
Can your one donation move the needle? For non-incumbents in congressional races, it can. Consider that in an average congressional district, flipping about 3000 votes swings the election by 1%. Good candidates who start off unknown can earn several votes per dollar of outreach, because yard signs, door-knocking, local events, and advertisements can dramatically improve name recognition. So with one $2700 donation, you can easily move the outcome by a percent.
Can we flip Congress to the party that demands integrity in government? As stewards of the fragile American democratic experiment, it is our solemn duty to try.
Donate to these candidates to flip Congress:
MI-07: Gretchen Driskell - Pro-infrastructure pro-education state representative. Has $1m vs $1m opposing pro-gun pro-war partisan nut Tim Walberg.
NY-23: John Plumb - Navy veteran, representing Corning, Has $556,393 vs $1.1m opposing NRA candidate Tom Reed.
VA-05: Jane Dittmar - Moderate businesswoman and county supervisor. Has $282k vs $54k opposing anti-immigrant Tom Garrett for open seat.
PA-16: Christina Hartman - Civic activist from Lancaster County. Has $205k vs $203k opposing Republican nut Lloyd Smucker.
CO-03: Gail Schwartz - State senator advocating environment and education. Has $549k vs $986k opposing banking deregulator Scott Tipton.
CA-49: Doug Applegate - Military vet in San Diego. Has $135k vs $3.7m. 45.5% vs 50.5% opposing partisan nutjob Darrell Issa. Issa is the wealthiest member of congress, and a real asshole. Surprisingly, in his heavily republican district, Applegate is polling even, so a donation here could swing the district and also help change the tenor in Congress.
CA-21: Emilio Huerta - Representing agricultural workers in one of the poorest districts in the country, with majority latino demographics that should not vote for the party of Trump; yet Huerta is an underdog. He is a labor lawyer who won a contested democratic primary. Has $57k vs $1.3m and opposes oil-industry-supported David Valadao.
FL-07: Stephanie Murphy - Vietnamese-American Banker/Consultant/Defense specialist representing central Florida including Orlando. Has $154k vs $750k opposing anti-immigrant partisan John Mica. Constituents dislike Mica but do not know Murphy: in polling she is statistically tied with Mica despite having only 30% name recognition in the district (vs Mica's 60%), so a donation here could win the race.
CA-25: Bryan Caforio - Young lawyer advocating for the middle class, energetic campaigner. Has $137k vs $650k, opposing anti-tax pro-gun Steven Knight.
IN-09: Shelli Yoder - Former Miss Indiana and business school lecturer competing for an open seat. In a statistical tie, has $504k vs $612k opposing super-rich tennessean out-of-towner Christian Conservative Trey Hollingsworth.
CA-10: Michael Eggman - Small bee farmer representing small business in one of the poorest agricultural districts in the country. Has $461k vs $2.5m. 27.6% vs 47.7% opposing anti-tax Jeff Denham. It’s a rematch: Denham beat him with 56% of the vote in 2014.
AZ-02: Matt Heinz - Gay doctor, state representative for Gabby Gifford’s seat. Has $290k vs $2m opposing Raytheon money recipient Martha McSally.
June 17, 2016
For decades, high speed trading has been sucking the blood out of the world's capital markets, and the answer has been clear for some time: find some way to force transactions to move more slowly.
So today's approval of IEX as an exchange is a big deal. How much do you have to slow down trades to get a fair deal? IEX has found that 350 microseconds is enough! Less than 1/100 of the time of an eyeblink for a human, that's enough time for a photon to travel about 60 miles. For computers, that is apparently slow enough to make high-speed arbitrage completely untenable.
Government is Not the Problem
David H Bau
Dear Senator Collins
Trump is a Two-Bit Dictator
Beware the Index Fund
Does Watching Fox News Kill You?
Our National Identity
Outrage is Not Enough
A Warning From 1937
A Demon-Haunted World
By the People, For the People
Integrity in Government
Starting at MIT
When to Sell
Making a $400 Linux Laptop
Teaching About Data
Pencil Code at Worcester Technical High School
A Bad Chrome Bug
PhantomJS and Node.JS
Integration Testing in Node.js
Second Edition of Pencil Code
Learning to Program with CoffeeScript
Teaching Math Through Pencil Code
Hour of Code at Lincoln
Hour of Code at AMSA
A New Book and a Thanksgiving Wish
Pencil Code: Lesson on Angles
Pencil Code: Lesson on Lines
Pencil Code: a First Look
CoffeeScript Syntax for Kids
CSS Color Names
For Versus Repeat
Book Sample Page
Teaching Programming and Defending the Middle Class
TurtleBits at Beaver Country Day
Book Writing Progress
Lessons from Kids
Await and Defer
Ticks, Animation, and Queueing in TurtleBits
Using the TurtleBits Editor
Starting with Turtlebits
No Threshold, No Limit
Local Variable Debugging with see.js
Mapping the Earth with Complex Numbers
Conformal Map Viewer
Jobs in 1983
The Problem With China
Made In America Again
Avoiding Selectors for Beginners
Turtle Graphics Fern with jQuery
Learning To Program with jQuery
Python Templating with @stringfunction
PUT and DELETE in call.jsonlib.com
Party like it's 1789
Using goo.gl with jsonlib
Dabbler Under Version Control
Snowpocalypse Hits Boston
Heidi's Sudoku Hintpad
Social Responsibility in Tech
The First Permanent Language
A New Framework For Finance
Lincoln School Construction
Stuck Pixel Utility
Fixing the Deficit
Cancelled Discover Card
Tic Toe Tac
Toe Tac Tic
Tutorial: Root Finder
What SAT Stands For
Tutorial: Cannon Game
Tutorial: Pascal's Triangle
Tutorial: Custom Poem
Tutorial: Maze Maker
Tutorial: Tic Tac Toe
Tutorial: Polygon Drawing
Tutorial: Caesar Cipher
Tutorial: Guess My Number
Tutorial: Ten Followers
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